One of the most relevant facts of the Aragonese relief is the strong altitude contrast, since you can find levels of more than 3,400 meters above sea level, such as that of the Aneto, and others of less than 100 meters such as those of the Lower Ebro.
The great units of the Aragonese relief, which are traditionally identified, are:
The Axil Pyrenees, is the axis or nucleus of the mountain range and has the highest altitudes of the same with levels that exceed 3,000, as is the case of Maladeta, Aneto and Perdiguero. It is made up of very old materials such as granites, quartzites, slates and paleozoic limestones. Its width in the whole of the chain is scarce.
The high peaks of the Pyrenees have perpetual snows housed in glacial cirques, which have left their evident marks on the landscape, through sharp ridges, hanging circuses and trough-shaped valleys.
The inner Sierras make up an elongated axis of calcareous ridges attached to the axial zone, but in a lower topographic step, which never exceeds 3,000 m of altitude.
They are endowed with an abrupt and steep physiognomy, on Mesozoic materials.
The Middle Intra-Pyrenean Depression is a wide corridor perpendicular to the high Pyrenean valleys and, therefore, parallel to the axis of the interior mountain ranges at whose foot it develops, excavated in rocks of little resistance such as bluish-gray marl. Its best represented section is the Berdún Canal.
It is the domain of structural reliefs modeled by differential erosion.
Its southern limit corresponds to the reliefs of San Juan de la Peña and Peña Oroel, modeled on conglomerates that give scarps of great beauty.
The Outer Sierras constitute the southern limit of the pyromancy chain, having a lower altitude than the axial Pyrenees or the inner sierras, since it reaches its highest point in the Sierra de Guara with just 2,000 m of altitude.
It constitutes the foothill area between the Outer Sierras and the Ebro Depression.
Its altitude varies from 700 800 m at its northern limit to 300 400 m at its southern limit. Its most outstanding features are the presence of wide erosive depressions excavated on the clay margo materials. There are areas of very broken topography represented by a succession and superposition of very stretched slopes, others formed by terraces and glacis and in others there are the phenomena of the holes due to differential erosion.
It opens in a northwest-southeast direction, following the general guidelines of the mountain ranges that frame it. The erosive processes have generated a series of tabular reliefs called grinding wheels and flats, whose summits culminate between 500 and 800 m.
From the molars it descends to the river courses through a slightly inclined surface, called glacis, ending in the river terraces. The terraces are formed by boulders coming from the erosion of the river, appearing staggered in a variable number of four or five, thus indicating the erosion cycles that have taken place since the formation of the Ebro hydrographic network.
It is a less powerful, vigorous and continuous mountain chain than the Pyrenees. The altitude of its highest levels rarely exceeds 2,000 m., Presenting summits with sloping shapes, not very lively and rugged.
The Zaragoza sector begins in the Sierra del Moncayo and following a NW-SE direction it forks into two branches that delimit the Calatayud-Daroca Depression. The northernmost branch is made up of the Sierras de la Virgen, Algairén and Vicort and the southernmost branch is the Sierras de Pardos and Santa Cruz. The heavier and leaner reliefs correspond to slates, while the steeper and more accentuated to quartzites.
The sector of Teruel presents a greater topographic homogeneity than that of Zaragoza, although the large units continue in the NW-SE direction. The northernmost section is the one formed by the Sierras de Cucalón and San Just, and the southernmost one by the Sierras de Menera and Albarracín. Both branches culminate in a discontinuous way in the highest levels of the province, such as the Sierras de Gúdar on the north branch and that of Javalambreen on the south branch.
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